Ozone depletion and related agreements
Ozone depletion and related agreements
In the early 1970s, Lovelock used an electron capture chromatograph on the Antarctic test ship to detect
Almost all latitudes of the earth's atmosphere contain CCl3 F (R11). Lovelock determined the content of R11 and estimated
It is found that CFCs-like substances hardly decompose in the troposphere, which is of far-reaching significance.
The discovery led scientists to study the fate of CFCs. Molina from the University of California
After Dr. Rowland learned of the incident, he began to study CFCs in 1972, and in 1974, he began to study CFCs.
The journal published a paper on the damaging effect of chloride ions in CFCs on the atmospheric ozone layer. Since then, the ozone layer destruction problem
Aroused worldwide attention, the problem of ozone layer destruction has also been listed as one of the four major global environmental problems today. This issue is raised
The two scholars also won the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
The ozone layer exists in the stratosphere at a distance of about 9~45km from the surface of the earth. It is the earth’s protective umbrella and has a wavelength of 280~
The 315nm solar radiation B ultraviolet rays (U V-B) have a strong absorption and filtering effect, and the decrease of the ozone layer concentration will make
The U V and B of the earth increase. According to the United Nations Development Program (U nited Nations Development Prog ramme,
According to the information provided by U NDP, for every 1% reduction in the ozone layer, the amount of ultraviolet radiation increases by about 2%. Ozone content in the atmosphere
Although it is extremely small, 90% of the ultraviolet rays emitted by the sun to the ground are absorbed by it. It is precisely because of the absorption of ozone.
The part of the sun’s ultraviolet rays that is harmful to organisms enables humans and various organisms on the earth to exist, multiply and develop.
Exhibition. However, for nearly half a century, due to the development of industry, people have been focusing on air-conditioning and refrigeration, plastic foaming, and electronic components.
CFCs and halons are used more and more widely in cleaning, fogging and fire fighting. These substances escape to
It can exist in the atmosphere for a long time, some up to 100 years. When they rise to the stratosphere, they are affected by the strong solar ultraviolet
Chlorine or bromine atoms are released from the bottom, the chlorine (bromine) atom can take an oxygen atom from the ozone molecule to make it normal
Of oxygen molecules to produce very unstable chlorine monoxide (bromine), which combines with another oxygen atom to make the chlorine (bromine) atom
Free out again and repeat the above reaction. This process can be repeated thousands of times, so one chlorine (bromine) atom can make
Many ozone molecules are destroyed.
The destruction of the ozone layer will cause many problems. The increase of U V and B has serious harmful effects on human health, causing serious harm to human health.
Exacerbate eye diseases, skin cancer and infectious diseases, cause cataracts, eye lens deformation, and increase the global cataract
Morbidity; Decrease the yield and quality of beans, melons, tomatoes, sugar beets and other crops; Decrease the productivity of phytoplankton
Decrease; accelerate the degradation and aging of materials used in construction, spraying, packaging, wires and cables, especially polymer materials
Quality; Produce additional greenhouse effect.
The large area of ozone "holes" over Antarctica has sounded the alarm for mankind: protect the ozone layer in the atmosphere and limit
Chapter 1 New refrigerants and natural refrigerants for refrigeration and air conditioning · 3 ·
The use of CFCs and H CFCs (hydrofluorochlorohydrocarbons) is urgent. To this end, the international community in the 20th century
During the 1980s and 1990s, a series of meetings were held to study the deadlines for the use of CFCs and HCFCs. In 1985
The United Nations Environment Programme (U nited Nations Environment Prog ramme, U NEP) promoted the development of
The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer has been signed by more than 20 countries. On the basis of the Vienna Convention
On the above, 24 countries including the member states of the European Community, the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and Japan passed the agreement in 1987
The Montreal Protocol has further increased specific measures. For 8 kinds (5 kinds of CFCs substances: R11, R12,
R113, R114, R115, 3 kinds of halon substances: R1201, R1301, R2402) ozone depleting substances (ozone
Depletion substance (ODS) put forward the time requirement to reduce the use, and it took effect in January 1989.
In view of the urgency of protecting the ozone layer, the “Parties of the Montreal Protocol” held in London in June 1990
At the “Second Meeting”, the amendment to the Montreal Protocol was passed, which further expanded the scope of controlled substances.
The control time has been increased, and 10 other CFCs substances (R13, R111, R112, R211, R212, R213,
R214, R215, R216, R217), carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform, and stipulate that
There are a total of 20 substances in 5 categories, except that the consumption time of methyl chloroform can be extended to 2005, and all other substances will be released in January 2000.
Stop consumption every day. In addition, H CFCs are also regulated (such as R21, R22, R31, R121, R122,
R123, R124, R141, R142, etc.) are transitional substances. The "Monte" held in Copenhagen in November 1992
At the Fourth Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Lier Protocol, the time for the phase-out of controlled substances was further revised and adjusted. Development
The 10-year grace period in China remains unchanged, and the new controlled substances HCFCs, HBFCs and methyl bromide have been added
Chemical measures, etc.
So far, more than 150 governments have ratified this treaty. Production and consumption of CFCs and other ODS
Has been miraculously reduced by nearly 70%. The reuse of CFCs is widely adopted, and ozone safety technology is already available.
OK and promoted. Monitoring shows that the growth rate of ozone-depleting substances in the atmosphere has gradually slowed down.
The content of bromine has also been reduced. However, the ozone layer is fragile, and only the constant support of all aspects of society including consumers
Only when the struggle to protect the ozone layer is finally won can it be won.
Since my country joined the Vienna Convention and signed the Montreal Protocol, it has been earnestly fulfilling the international conventions.
And obligations under the Protocol. In 1992, he organized the preparation of a national plan for the phase-out of ozone-depleting substances in China.
my country has formally joined the Montreal Protocol and actively participates in relevant international cooperation. As a signatory to the Protocol,
All ODS substances should be phased out by 2030, which is a very difficult task for a developing country. National Ring in 1994
The Insurance Bureau issued the Measures for the Administration of the Certification of Products with Environmental Protection Labels. In 1999, the State Environmental Protection Agency, the Planning Commission, the Economic and Trade Commission and the Industry and Commerce Commission
The Bureau jointly issued a notice on prohibiting new production and use of ozone-depleting substances production facilities, stipulating that
Refrigerators, freezers, industrial and commercial refrigerators that use chlorofluorocarbons as foaming agents or refrigerants shall not be newly built, expanded or rebuilt
Freezing and refrigerating equipment production line and air conditioner production line. From November 29 to December 3, 1999, the first session was held in Beijing
The Eleventh Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, and the State Council approved the implementation
China's national plan for the phase-out of ozone-depleting substances (revised draft). The plan stipulates that all halons in the fire protection industry should be eliminated
The time of 1211 has been advanced from 2010 to 2006, and ODS in the automotive air-conditioning, cleaning and other industries will also be completed ahead of schedule.
Eliminate. In 2000, the newly revised Air Pollution Prevention and Control Law of the People’s Republic of China was promulgated and implemented, which combined CFCs and H CFCs
The replacement work has risen to the height of the law. In 2002, the overall elimination plan for CFCs in China’s automobile air-conditioning industry was successfully completed.
Strike a row. In April 2003, the Chinese government formally signed the Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol. So far
However, large-scale elimination activities have been carried out in the fields of chemical industry, cleaning, foam, aerosol, refrigeration, fire protection and tobacco.
· 4 · Research and Development Report on the Progress of Refrigeration Discipline
move . Through the implementation of phase-out projects in various industries, substantial reductions have been successfully carried out, and the protocol stipulated in the protocol has been successfully achieved.
The production and consumption freeze targets of CFCs, CTC, halons, methyl chloroform, and methyl bromide.
On September 16, 2005, the State Environmental Protection Administration, the United Nations Development Program, and the United Nations Environment Program were in Guangdong
Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, held the "International Day for the Protection of the Ozone Layer" commemorative meeting.
Committee, Multilateral Fund Secretariat, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Development Programme, World Bank, United Nations Engineering
Representatives of international organizations such as industry and development organizations, leaders of relevant national ministries and commissions, associations, and government representatives of various provinces and cities.
300 people conducted in-depth discussions and exchanges on how China protects the ozone layer in accordance with the law. Jilin Province, Shandong Province, Hainan
Provinces, Shenzhen, Wuhan, Xi'an, Urumqi, Suzhou, Nantong, Zhenjiang, Langfang, etc. 15
An ozone layer friendly province and city issued an initiative on protecting the ozone layer and accelerating the phase-out of ozone-depleting substances at the meeting. press
According to the requirements of the Montreal Protocol, China should completely stop CFCs and halon from January 1, 2010.
The production and use of two major types of ODS. In order to express China’s determination to protect the ozone layer, the Chinese government has resolutely decided
Accelerate the phase-out of CFCs and halon substances, and advance this date to July 1, 2007. And this time the initiative
Fifteen provinces and cities have moved this time forward to July 1, 2006.